Tag Archives: Avicenna

On a Few Reflections and Observations

“Monday Musings” for Monday October 27, 2014

Volume IV, No. 43/143

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Potpourri of Reflections and Observations

By Assad Meymandi, MD, PhD, DLFAPA*

The Birth of Existentialism

I am delighted to know that many of our readers are pleased with our occasional philosophical discourse. After all, philosophy means literally “love of wisdom.”  Wisdom is not information, it is not knowledge; yet it is both of those, and more. Also, it is gratifying to receive readers’ mail who ask for more discussion of people who have made a difference in this world, like Soren Kierkegaard, born 1813, died 1855, a brilliant sarcastic, humorous and incredibly prolific thinker theologian/philosopher. He, along with Martin Heidegger (1889-1976—I once went to Berlin to meet and talk with him), Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1950) and Albert Camus (1913-1960) are the four horses of Existentialism, all of whom give credit to St Augustine of Hippo for their start and cutting their teeth in understanding the basic premises and principles of existentialism. Soren used to write books pseudonymously, and then critique them harshly, calling the writer of the books, meaning himself, a no good “oeuf”…

A writer asked about Manicheans. This reader was stimulated by my review of James O’Donnell’s book on the life of Saint Augustine. Yes, Saint Augustine of Hippo for 14 years of his life, between ages of 18 (372) and 32 (386, the year he converted to Christianity) was a Manichean. Augustine was baptized by Bishop Ambrose of Milan on Easter morning 387.

Mani was a Persian. He was born and raised near today’s Basra which was a part of the Persian Empire. The religion is heavily based on Zoroastrianism and Zoroaster’s (Zaratustra) dualistic approach to heaven and earth, good and evil, body and soul… He is purported to have gone to China and converted Turan, Shah of China, (Puccinin’s Turandot which is really Turan-dokht, the daughter of Turan) and is based on this Emperor’s daughter.  Manicheans were sophisticated and learned. They often ridiculed Christians and their ”faith.” Manichians were highly educated, most master-rhetors, engaged in the art of persuasion, like today’s Law professors. They believed in dualism, rationalism and materialism. Augustine’s corpus of work contains19 volumes refuting Manicheans, Donatists, Palagirists and Arians. It makes for stimulating reading and ultimately giving reader a roadmap to true wisdom.

AM

Greed/Financial Dysfunction

The market has rebounded from five years ago. S&P is back to new highs. The stock market is volatile but not in a doldrums. Several years ago, when depression and unemployment engulfed our nation, I wrote that I needed help to understand a few things about our financial system. Here is what I wrote: “While stocks have lost about 50% of their value in one year, and many 401 K for the middle class American workers have been wiped out, we see the salaries and compensations of the CEOs who have caused this chaos have gone up. Let me quote some of these salaries from published statistics, US Department of Labor: Lloyd Blankfein, Chair and CEO, Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. received $68.0 million dollars in compensation, and when the company failed the federal government pumped in $10 billion dollars to rescue it.  Similarly, James Dimon, Chair and CEO, J. P. Morgan Chase & Co., $30.4 million in compensation and $25 billion government bailout; Kenneth Lewis, Chair, CEO, Bank of America Corp., $16.4 million, $25 billion; John Mack, Chair & CEO, Morgan Stanley, $16 million, $10 billion; Vikram Pandit, CEO Citigroup, Inc, $5.7, with $25 billion bailout;  William McGuire, Chair and CEO, UnitedHealth $40.7 million; and another Merrill Lynch high flyer, Peter Kraus, head of strategy, $25 million, just to name a few.”

What I still don’t understand and would like for someone to explain to me is how could these people run their companies to the ground, cause millions of their shareholders to have their retirements wiped out and yet be rewarded and the government, without shame, bailed them out?  Please help. Today, five years later I do not believe any of these individual have been reprimanded.

AM

Editor, Psychiatric News:

The August 16 presidential column, Psychiatric News, interested me immensely. In her column, Dr Stotland made a point that the meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatry in London was modest, “using the meeting facilities of the inexpensive venue of the Imperial College has enabled the College to experiment with a meeting without pharmaceutical support…” She stated that “The meeting briefcases carried only the seal of the college…”

For decades, I have criticized the unholy and ethically unacceptable marriage of organized medicine and drug manufacturers. The unwelcome and greed-laden alliance of healthcare and pharmaceutical industries is an abomination. In recent months, we have learned that the scientists, writing papers in leading medical journals, have been sponsored by the drug makers. The Vioxx/Merck mess is a good example. Ghost authorship and ghostwriting occur even in our most trusted peer reviewed journals.

The late President Eisenhower, once in the late 1950s warned against the military-industrial complex. Now, the nation must be warned against the medical-pharmaceutical complex. It is ominous. Organized medicine and APA must find a way to fund their needs through Foundation moneys and not through revenues of advertisements by drug companies.  Also, physicians ought to buy their own lunches, their own pens and their own scratch pads. And they should not get their “medical education” from drug representatives but from rigorous engagement in continued medical education. We must cleanse the holy temple of medicine from these corrupt practices. Maybe Dr. Stotland will start us off on this much needed pilgrimage.

Sincerely,

Assad Meymandi, MD, PhD, DLFAPA

The Gift of Pistachio and a Pinch of Sufism

This is a personal note.  I know that it should be handwritten. But legibility becomes a problem.  I am writing to tell you how touched I was to receive your thoughtful card with your inserted personal note bearing syntactical elegance and rabbinical wisdom (Rabbi from Aramaic and later Hebrew roots means ‘My teacher’.) Also thank you for the gift of pistachios, every individual kernel depicting the Hafez poem” Pesteh Khandan.” Pistachios were known to Sumerians. There are records in cuneiform (spike or Mikhi) alphabet what scholars have interpreted to be pistachio associated with green color. Sanskrit word PESTEH is the etymology of our word pistachio. During Achamenid Dynasty, in Persia, Shiraz became the center for growing groves of pistachio trees. And in the pre-Islamic world, they used to ferment and make a wine from pistachio. There was and continues to be to this day, one species of pistachio that actually opens in the pod/shell on the tree before they are picked.  They are called “laughing or smiling pistachios.” The Shiraz poets such as Mosleh-Din Saadi (1210-1290) and Khajeh Shams-Din-Hafez (1337-1406) have romanced this species of pistachio as the smiling or laughing (KHANDAN) fruit. As one can see, a cracked pistachio looks like a smiling face.

Saadi and Hafez were Sufis. Sufi philosophy has given birth to the discourse and science of “ontology.”  For the last 1200 years, it has evolved the beatific message “to be in the world but not of the world.”  Sufism invites, encourages, and teaches the art and skill of “being” as a contradistinction of “doing.”  We need to set aside time for introspection and reflection…All one’s “doings” should be in the ultimate service of “being” and “becoming”….

Rumi, one of the most eloquent and influential Masters of Sufi in relation to ontology said: “Blessed are those who are in a state of constant worship….for the very act of worship is the essence is self-awareness and self-knowledge…”.  I must assert that Rumi is very much exploited by literary charlatans and marketers who pose as Rumi authorities, yet do not know a word of Farsi language!)

May your faces like Hafez’ Pesteh be Khandan, smiling and happy forever.

AM

Etymology of the Word “Religion”

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) and John Calvin (1509-1564), two disparate theologians of the 13th and 16th centuries, along with Persian physician Abu Ali Sina Avicenna (980-1037), the famed medical diagnostician and clinician of the eleventh century have written independent treatises on the “religion.”  Here is a summary of their work on the topic:

The etymology of the word “religion”, re-ligion”; re: again, ligating: binding, connecting (surgeons ligate veins and tie up arteries); thus, re-connecting, re-binding, re-attaching…what to what is the question.  Perhaps to the beatific vision of eternity and transcendence of love…

AM

A Euro for Asia

The wire services just unloaded a very heartwarming and personal story: Robert Mundel, Reagan’s Chairman of Economic advisors, father of trickle down Reageanonomics (Ibn Khaldoun ‘1332-1406’ was the real father, Robert Mundel was a promulgator!), but he was the true father of the “Euro”, the 1999 Nobel Laureate in Economics, is now back in the news. He wants to foster or father the equivalent currency of Euro for Asia. The name has not been conceived. The Sultan of Abu Dhabi, owner of the multi-trillion dollar “Sovereign Fund” which has been rescuing American Banks and Financial institutions (including Bank of America, UBS, CitiBank, and Washington Mutual) is behind the effort.

A personal note: We had the privilege of having lunch with Dr. Mundel in his Palladian villa in Italy on Friday June 25, 1992. It was a memorable occasion.

AM
Randy Pausch’s name was being considered by some members of the National Humanities Center Nominating Committee for membership to the Board before we earned that he was dying. I was fortunate to be in the audience when he gave his “Last lecture” at Carnegie Mellon. It was a fascinating experience. He was a picture of health. He did summersaults and push-ups during his lecture, and at the conclusion of his speech, carried his wife off the stage. It is very sad that he died, yet, it is glorious the way he lived and the legacy he left for us. I am reviewing his book which will appear in a future issue of WCP.

AM

The Dope on Cannabis

In response to a reader’s question about cannabis and alcohol:

The scholarship on cannabis and data driven research on this controversial drug show that cannabis may and does affect not only the higher cortical structures but also the subcortical parts of the brain, what is known as the Limbic system, causing not only bipolar disorder (radical mood swings and irrational and impulsive behaviour), but actual psychosis. Alcohol has the same adverse effects on the brain through different pathways. So, I really condemn both. I am absolutely against legalizing cannabis. I would be happy to give you reference to these studies. A drunken parent should not hypocritically admonish a pothead child. It does not work. This is one of the astonishing teachings of Saint Augustine of Hippo, the ultimate role model to humankind. Although he was addicted to sex, after his conversion to Christianity and soon after becoming a Bishop, he had enough discipline to stop sex altogether. The same, I condemn tobacco and its ill effects on the body in general. However, I guess the reason tobacco is not banned is that it does NOT cause bipolar disorder and psychosis.

The ultimate answer to these problems is education which starts in utero. Mamas must adopt Augustinian discipline to love themselves and their fetus(es), stop tobacco, alcohol and over-eating while they are pregnant, and continue to be role models to their children. Greed spoils capitalism and private enterprise. Making money out of harming others by selling, cannabis, tobacco, alcohol,  and other harmful substances is immoral.

AM

Hypocrisy and Greed of University Leaders

I am opposed to lowering drinking age in college as many, including 100 college and university leaders, promote. While prohibition is often counterproductive, I believe the answer to binging, abuse and unreasonable use of alcohol is education. The answer also lies in curtailing greed and hunger for money. The University leaders ought to cut out advertising of beer from all TV sports. It is sheer greed to have alcohol products sponsoring sports events, and it is sheer hypocrisy for the university leaders to tolerate this practice because it produces revenue for their institutions. Ban alcohol ads from all television sports.

AM

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*The writer is Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill, Distinguished Life fellow American Psychiatric Association, and Founding Editor and Editor-in-Chief, Wake County Physician Magazine (1995-2012). He serves as a Visiting Scholar and lecturer on Medicine, the Arts and Humanities at his alma mater the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health.

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On Yom Kippur and Moses Maimonides

“Monday Musings” for Monday September 9, 2013

Volume III, No. 34/128

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Yom Kippur,

Moses Maimonides of Cordoba

(Editor’s Note: Muslims have Ramadan, month of fasting and worship. Christians have Lent dedicated to worship, fasting and contemplation. Jews have Yom Kippur. Etymology: Yom in Arabic and Aramaic means Day, Kippur from Semitic roots means atonement.  It is a Holy day observed on the 10th day of Tishra marked by fasting, prayer, and atonement of sins. On our calendar this year, it falls on Friday September 13, 2013.  We thought it is appropriate to look at one of the most formidable Jewish Rabbis, philosopher, physician, research scientist, astronomer, and theologian, Moses Maimonides of Cordoba.)

BOOK REVIEW

by Assad Meymandi, MD, PhD, DLFAPA*

Moses Maimonides

Edited by Fred Rosner, MD and Samuel S. Kottek, MD

229 pages of text, 41 pages of reference notes and 10 pages of index

Jason Aronson, INC., Publisher

There is a sweet anecdote at the beginning of Sherwin Nuland’s biography of Moses Maimonides which has to do with Jewish mothers insisting their sons to become doctors, the “My son, the Doctor” paradigm.It goes something like this: “Imprisoned in a tower in Madrid, disabled by syphilis and further weakened by abscess in his scalp, The French King Francis asked of his captor, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, to send the finest Jewish physician to attempt a cure.” Frances discovered that the doctor sent to him was not Jewish but a baptized Christian. Irate, Francis dismissed the doctor and insisted to be treated by a genuine Jew. That physician may have been-most historians say it was-“Moses Maimonides brought all the way from Cordoba.” Not only was Moses Maimonides of Cordoba a good Jewish doctor, he was a rabbi, a philosopher and a prolific writer. During his life time he wrote 5.3 million words, most of which have been preserved. He wrote on all aspects of medicine, infectious disease, nutrition, spirituality, and internal medicine. But he also made inroads into the world of psychiatry.

You would think that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an effective method of treating a wide range of psychiatric problems, including obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorder, depression, borderline personality disorder and many other neuroses including phobia and panic disorder, is thought to be one of the contributions of the twentieth century medicine, until you read about the life and work of the polymath, “super-genius” physician, theologian, philosopher and astronomer, Rabbi Moses Maimonides of Cordoba.The Rabbi, a major author of Helakhic authorities, the collective corpus of Jewish religious, rabbinical and later Talmudic laws wrote about CBT way back in 1170. Fred Rosner, a respected hematologist and medical ethicist, a professor of medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in NY, and his colleague Samuel Kottek, professor of the history of medicine at the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, have collected papers and articles by no fewer than 20 scholars offering this remarkable edited volume. It is a slender and compact 229 pages chock full of historical jewels. In essence, it is a biography of Dr. Maimonides, along with a description of his writings and work.

Fred Rosner’s erudite discussion in this well-researched and meticulously referenced book shows the reader that Moses Maimonides in his famous trilogy, the Commentary on Mishnah ( repetition), which is the major source of rabbinic Judaism, the Mishneh Torah, and the Guide for the Perplexed, which traces much of what we know today about the effect of nutrition, methods of practicing CBT and biofeedback, guided imagery, and self-awareness, a discipline he learned from the  work of the Persian physician, Abu Ali Sina, Ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1130) and Saint Augustine of Hippo (345- 420).

In a chapter that asymptotically approaches brilliance and virtuosity, Gad Fruendenthal explains how Maimonides, a citizen of the medieval age of superstition and primitive thinking, radically opposed astrology. He was quick to give credit for his enlightened thinking to Omar Khayam, the Persian poet and astronomer, born 1085, died 1123, only eight years before the birth of Maimonides. So, for all practical purposes, Avicenna, Khayam and Maimonides were contemporaries. Although Omar Khayam is known for his poetry and the Rubayats, he was a scientist and an avid astronomer to whose work Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) has made numerous references. Like Aristotle, Maimonides insisted on scientific objective and not speculative findings. In a seminal paper (Resaleh), Maimonides outlined four methods of learning that remain in practice today.They are:

1)  Learning by Devine authority. He gives the example of Moses learning on Mt Sinai and bringing to his people the tablets of the Ten Commandments.

2)  Learning by human authority through science and scientific method. Science is not faith-based, it is fact-based. This reminds me of a former professor of pathology of mine at GW school of Medicine who used to insist that “In God we Trust, the rest bring data…I am sure my professor learned that from Maimonides.

3)  Learning by experimental observation. Our current discoveries of Genomics, Proteomics and Connectinomics (also called Connectomics) are examples. We will soon have ’MM’ devoted to this exciting topic showing that stem cell utilization to grow body parts and organs are as the result of this type of learning.

4)  Learning by logic and deductive reasoning. Maimonides credited Aristotle for this type of learning.

In his book, the Guide, collection of his personal letters referring to the practice of medicine, Maimonides wrote: “Medicine is not knitting and weaving and the labor of the hands, but it must be inspired with soul and be filled with understanding…” 

Reading this fascinating book about Moses Maimonides of Cordoba make us fall in love with our holy profession of medicine all over again, and take refuge from the oppression and intrusions of the government, Obamacare, HMOs and BCBS!

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*The writer is Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill, Distinguished Life fellow American Psychiatric Association, and Founding Editor and Editor-in-Chief, Wake County Physician Magazine (1995-2012). He serves as a Visiting Scholar and lecturer on Medicine, the Arts and Humanities at his alma mater the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health.

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